Image of Interior Page

Staff/Team Members

 Katherine Klem, Director, Policy Innovation and Impact

Katherine leads the Institute’s Pay for Success (PFS) team; develops our work of building outcomes- and performance-driven early childhood systems; works with states, counties, and cities to develop new applications from the lessons we have learned; and liaises with the Institute’s colleagues in Washington, D.C.

Katherine says her career is driven by a singular hope — to empower people with opportunity worthy of their dignity.  She believes PFS, among other tools, can help us do just that.

Under President Obama, Katherine worked at the White House and Executive Office of the President as a Senior Policy Advisor to lead federal PFS initiatives to improve social outcomes.  As part of the Domestic Policy Council and Office of National Drug Control Policy, Katherine’s PFS work – partnering with agencies to set up grant programs, helping to build the PFS field, and more — focused on early education, career and technical education, the opioid crisis among other health issues, veterans’ employment, and homelessness.  She also helped advance the President’s larger “evidence” priorities. Previous to working solely for the White House, she worked for the Social Innovation Fund PFS program at the Corporation for National and Community Service while also partnering with the White House.

Before moving to D.C., Katherine worked for charter schools, organized labor, the American Cancer Society, then-Mayor Bloomberg in New York City, and Governor Hickenlooper in Colorado. Originally from Kentucky, Katherine first became interested in the power of policy to effect social justice by working on tobacco control across her home state while in high school and creating a national nonprofit to rally young people to the cause.  She earned an MPP as a Dubin Fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School, where she conducted PFS feasibility analysis for Massachusetts as part of the now-named Harvard Government Performance Lab.  Katherine also earned a BA with High Distinction at the University of Virginia and was named a U.S. Presidential Scholar.  Her puppy, Magi, brings great joy to her heart.

Mary C. Garvey, Associate Director of Pay for Success Financing


  • Mary Garvey joined ICS in March 2015 as Associate Director of Pay for Success Financing. She is a native New Yorker with a passion for building equitable systems and fostering social justice through policy. Mary earned a Bachelor of Science degree, and a Certificate in Justice and Peace Studies from Georgetown University in Washington, DC. She went on to complete a Master of Science in Urban Policy Analysis and Management at Milano – The New School for Urban Policy in New York City. She has been a champion of educational equity in particular for the past 12 years.

Mary worked at College Summit for 4 years, and served for more than 2 years as a Public Policy Analyst at the National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF). At NHF, she helped guide state advocacy initiatives in 52 regions, tracked healthcare reform, and managed a national youth advocacy training program. In addition, Mary has consulted for the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA), Blanche Community Progress Day Care Center, and the NYC Hunger Free Communities Consortium. Having also served with organizations such as the NAACP (Georgetown University chapter), the DC Congressional Award Council, and AmeriCorps, her experience has included direct service, strategic planning, and advocacy.

Megan Carolan, Director for Policy Research

MeganCarolanMegan is the Director for Policy Research at ICS. She helps direct ICS’s research on early childhood policy, as well as support its technical assistance for Pay for Success jurisdictions. Megan was previously the Policy Research Coordinator at the National Institute for Early Education Research at Rutgers University, where she managed the State Preschool Yearbook, NIEER’s annual report on state-funded pre-K policy. She also provided technical assistance to states through NIEER’s Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes, a federally funded TA center focused on improving outcomes for children from birth to age 8. Megan holds a Master of Public Policy, with a concentration in social policy, from the Edward J. Bloustein School at Rutgers University. She graduated magna cum laude from Fairfield University in Connecticut, majoring in sociology and politics.

Bryan Boroughs, Director, Palmetto Initiatives and General Counsel

  • Bryan joined ICS as a policy associate in January 2014, and assumed his current role in May of 2014. He recently served for two years as an investigative counsel to the United States Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. Prior to that work, he helped start a national non-profit advocacy organization, Young Invincibles, focused on expanding economic opportunity and sound public policies for young adults. Before law school, Bryan worked for several youth-serving organizations including the Mountain View Whisman Elementary School District, the Girl Scouts of Santa Clara County, and Mental Health America of Greenville County.

Born in Tennessee, Bryan attended Furman University where he graduated with a bachelor’s degree in psychology. He later obtained a Juris Doctor and a Master of Public Policy from Georgetown University. He currently serves on the board of Increasing HOPE, a Community Development Center in Charleston.

Christina Vazquez, Grants Administrator

ChristinaVazquezChristina Vazquez joined ICS as the Grants Administrator in November 2014. She previously worked for Dignity Health as the Contracts Manager for the Hope Street Family Center in Los Angeles, California and as a System Administrator for Dignity Health’s Corporate office in Pasadena, California. She earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Family & Consumer Sciences from the University of Georgia.